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By J.L. Arpigny, J. Coyette, S. Davail, G. Feller, E. Fonze, E.C. Foulkes, J.-M. Frere, R. Fujii, S. Genicot, C. Gerday, B. Joris, J. Lamotte-Brasseur, J.N. Maina, E. Narinx, M. Nguyen-Disteche, N. Oshima, A. Vairengo, Z. Zekhnini

ADVANCES IN COMPARATIVE AND ENVIRONMENTAL body structure is helping biologists, physiologists, and biochemists maintain music of the huge literature in thefield. delivering complete, built-in reports and sound, severe, and provocative summaries, this sequence is a needs to for all lively researchers in environmental and comparative body structure. the current quantity includes six stories on: - Motile actions of Fish Chromatophores. - Epithelial shipping of Heavy Metals. - Heavy steel Cytotoxicity in Marine Organisms. - Comparative Pulmonary Morphology and Morphometry. - Molecular variations in Resistance to Penicillins. - Molecular diversifications of Enzymes From Thermophilic and Psychrophilic Organisms.

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Blindfolded fish behave similarly. It has been shown that, upon an increase in environmental lightness, the rate of secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland decreases, whereas this rate increases in the dark. As described in Sect. 1, circadian changes in color of live fish are induced in this way. Naturally, the influence of light on the chromatic responses of many fish are almost completely lost after pinealectomy or extirpation of the pineal region of the brain. In order to follow the pigment-aggregating motor pathway, von Frisch (1911) made incisions in various parts of the central nervous system, as well as in peripheral regions en route to melanophores, in the minnow Phoxinus.

Oshima Fig. 4. Diagrammatic representation of the dynamics of events that involve both the true transmitter and the cotransmitter liberated from the sympathetic postganglionic fiber in teleosts. -adrenoceptor. (Fujii and Oshima 1986) Varicose-type presynapt ice 1ement Chromatophore cleft. The resultant nucleoside, adenosine, survives for a longer period in the synaptic cleft and functions to reverse the influence of the true transmitter, namely, to cause the re-dispersion of pigment, via specific receptors for adenosine on the effector membrane.

The dependence on Ca2+ ions of the action of MSH has also been demonstrated for bright-colored chromatophores, namely, the erythrophores of the platyfish, the xanthophores and leucophores of the medaka (Oshima and Fujii 1985). Thus, the requirement for Ca2 + ions of the action of MSH may be a common property in fish. Among the several types of signal to chromatophores, MSH is the only one to require Ca2 + ions for its effect. Presumably, Ca2+ ions are required for the binding ofthe ligand to the active site of the receptor.

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