By C. R. Scott B.A., M.I.C.E., M.I.Struct.E. (auth.)
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Extra info for An Introduction to Soil Mechanics and Foundations
However, if the dry density is plotted against the water content for a given compactive effort, it will be seen that the dry density reaches a peak, after which any further increase in water content results in a smaller dry density. The reason for this can be readily seen if lines are plotted on the same diagram representing the relation between dry density and water content for complete saturation, and for various air void ratios. 34 above, we have Yd = (1 - A) . G,yw G,w + 1 The lines for complete saturation, and for 5% and for 10% air void ratios are shown in Fig.
Where rainfall exceeds evaporation, the water table is generally close to the surface in soils of low permeability, but may be at depths of 6 m to 10 m in sands. In an arid climate, a high water table is generally only found close to the sea or to some similar source of supply. In the absence of this, the water table may fall to a depth of 30 m or more. Between the water table and the ground surface, water is held in the soil by matrix (or capillary) suction and by solute (or osmotic) suction. 9 Matrix suction: The air at the air/water interface may usually be assumed to be at atmospheric pressure.
T) and saturated bulk density (Y.. t): The saturated water content and the saturated bulk density are the water content and bulk density which the soil would have if saturated at the same void ratio. 35 The purpose of compaction: Compaction is the application of mechanical energy to the soil, to rearrange the particles, and to reduce the void ratio, usually by driving out air. THE ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS 25 When placing any fill material, it is generally desirable to achieve the smallest possible void ratio, for three reasons: The maximum shear strength occurs approximately at the minimum void ratio (b) Large air voids may lead to subsequent compaction under working loads, causing settlement of the structure during service (c) If large 'air voids are left in the soil, they may subsequently be filled with water, which may reduce the shear strength of the soil.